Por que a maioria das pessoas é destra?

Por que a maioria das pessoas é destra?

Aproximadamente 90% dos seres humanos são destros e esta é uma das características que nos separa da maioria dos outros primatas que realmente não mostram qualquer preferência geral entre esquerda ou direita.


Acredita-se que a lateralização desempenhou um papel importante na evolução humana, como se verifica em um estudo recente sobre as primeiras que mostra evidências de destros no registro fóssil, esclarecendo quando e por que motivo este traço surgiu.

Curiosamente, as pistas foram encontradas não em nossas mãos antigas, mas em nossos dentes antigos. Sabemos há muito tempo que o cérebro humano é composto por duas metades aproximadamente semelhantes. [Homens de Neandertal eram maioritariamente destros e podiam ter tido capacidade para a linguagem]

O hemisfério esquerdo controla a linguagem e as habilidades motoras, enquanto o hemisfério direito é responsável pela atenção visual-espacial. Menos conhecida é a lateralização do cérebro, ou o domínio de alguns processos cognitivos em um lado do cérebro, que é uma característica distintiva dos seres humanos, e está associada com a capacidade cognitiva melhorada.

Mas poderia a lateralização ter desempenhado um papel importante na distinção de funções entre os hemisférios do cérebro? Antigas ferramentas feitas de pedra e usadas pelos nossos ancestrais mais antigos revelam algumas pistas.

Uso de ferramentas


As primeiras ferramentas de pedra datam de há 3,3 milhões de anos atrás e foram encontradas no moderno Quênia, em África. A fabricação precoce de ferramentas de pedra teria exigido um elevado nível de destreza. Sabemos, por experiências que replicaram processos de fabricação de ferramentas, que o hemisfério esquerdo do cérebro, responsável pelo planejamento e execução, está ativo durante esse processo.

Ao mesmo tempo, os seres humanos são esmagadoramente destros, quando se trata de fazer ferramentas em comparação com outras espécies. Isto é mais provável porque os hemisférios esquerdo e direito controlam a ação motora nos lados opostos do corpo. [Canhoto ou destro? Encontrados genes para a lateralidade]

Embora essa relação não seja direta, parece que, na maioria dos casos, a lateralidade corporal e a lateralidade do cérebro andam de mãos dadas. Então, por que usar os dentes para investigar a mão? A resposta reside na escassez de correspondência de ossos do braço esquerdo e direito no registro fóssil, particularmente aqueles pertencentes aos nossos ancestrais mais antigos.

Sem combinar conjuntos de esquerda e direita, é impossível examinar diferenças de tamanho e forma para determinar qual mão um indivíduo favorecia ao completar tarefas manuais. Os dentes, por outro lado, tendem a sobreviver relativamente bem no registro fóssil e podem preservar arranhões, ou "estrias", que estabelecem a lateralidade.

Em um estudo anterior, os pesquisadores observaram estrias na parte da frente dos dentes pertencentes a neandertais europeus. Eles supuseram que essas marcas foram feitas quando o material foi segurado em uma mão e agarrado entre os dentes da frente, sendo trabalhado pela outra mão com uma ferramenta de pedra, tendo essa ferramenta ocasionalmente atingindo esses dentes.

Essas ações foram replicadas durante experimentos em que os participantes usavam protetores bucais. Os resultados indicaram que as estrias inclinadas para a direita são feitas nos dentes quando o material é puxado com a mão esquerda e batido com a mão direita. As estrias inclinadas para a direita são, portanto, um bom indicador da destreza.

A mandíbula estudada pertencia a um dos nossos ancestrais humanos mais antigos, o Homo habilis (literalmente, o "homem prático"), que percorreu a Tanzânia, na África, há cerca de 1,8 milhões de anos. A mandíbula foi identificada em Olduvai Gorge, na planície Serengeti, que tem rendido alguns dos primeiros vestígios arqueológicos no mundo.

Marcas nos dentes


Os autores do estudo observaram uma série de estrias na parte frontal dos dentes. Eles usaram microscópios de alta potência e câmeras digitais para investigar essas estrias, especialmente padrões em sua direção.

Curiosamente, quase metade de todas as estrias estavam inclinadas para a direita. As estrias oblíquas direitas eram particularmente dominantes em quatro dos dentes frontais (incisivos centrais esquerdo e direito, segundo incisivo direito e canino direito).

Isso levou os autores a argumentar que a maioria das marcas foram feitas com a mão direita do indivíduo. Eles também sugeriram que os quatro dentes frontais com muitas estrias direita-oblíquas eram o foco da maioria das atividades de processamento.

A mandíbula do Homo habilis é importante porque fornece a evidência mais velha da capacidade de ser destro no registro fóssil. Mas também é significativo porque sugere que esse nível principal da organização do cérebro já tinha ocorrido nos seres humanos há pelo menos 1.8 milhões de anos.

Este desenvolvimento do cérebro nos permitiu dominar habilidades iniciais cruciais, como a fabricação de ferramentas de pedra e potencialmente também pavimentou o caminho para o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Ser destro, portanto, significa muito mais para nós do que simplesmente uma preferência para usar a mão direita. [TheConversation]
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