O que seu nariz pode revelar sobre suas emoções

O que seu nariz pode revelar sobre suas emoções

Do aroma doce de biscoitos frescos que fazem você se sentir quente ao perfume sutil de flores que florescem na primavera, seu olfato tem uma forte influência sobre suas emoções.



Isso ocorre porque há uma sobreposição parcial entre as áreas em nossos cérebros que lidam com a percepção olfativa e aquelas que processam as emoções, acredita Marilena Aiello, pesquisadora de neurociências cognitivas na Escola Internacional de Estudos Avançados da Itália e co-autora de um novo estudo ligando cheiro e emoção.

Mas o que acontece com o seu sentido do olfato se você tiver problemas com as emoções? [9 fatos incríveis sobre o cérebro humano]

No estudo, Aiello e seus colegas analisaram a forma como certas aromas afetam pessoas que têm uma condição psicológica conhecida como alexitimia, o que significa que elas têm dificuldades em expressar suas emoções (em grego, alexitimia significa "sem palavras para sentimentos"). Estima-se que 1 em cada 10 pessoas tenham a condição.

As pessoas com alexitimia têm dificuldade em processar e se relacionar com diferentes emoções, como alegria, raiva ou desgosto. Dado o vínculo bem estabelecido entre o cheiro e as emoções, os pesquisadores queriam ver se alexitimia afetava a forma como as pessoas respondem a aromas diferentes.

Para isso, os pesquisadores dividiram um grupo de 62 indivíduos em três grupos de acordo com a gravidade da alexitimia (alta, média e baixa). Aos participantes foram apresentados cheiros - que iam desde odores desagradáveis ​​a aromas neutros - que tinham que identificar. Além disso, os pesquisadores também avaliaram o limiar dos participantes para detectar diferentes aromas.

Em seguida, os participantes foram convidados a avaliar três diferentes "categorias" de odor: ar desagradável, neutro e limpo. Os participantes avaliaram a intensidade, o agrado e a familiaridade de cada um dos três odores.

Durante este teste, os pesquisadores mediram a freqüência cardíaca dos participantes e a resposta de condutância da pele, que se destina a avaliar o nível de excitação de uma pessoa. Isso serviu para medir as reações físicas dos participantes aos aromas, disseram os pesquisadores.

As pessoas no estudo também completaram questionários que avaliaram sua consciência de odores em seu ambiente e a capacidade de imaginar diferentes odores, de acordo com o estudo. Os autores descobriram que indivíduos com alto nível de alexitimia apresentaram maior resposta fisiológica aos odores.

Esse achado vai contra o que os estudos anteriores mostraram: indivíduos com alexitria geralmente apresentavam pouca ou nenhuma resposta fisiológica. Os resultados obtidos mostram que uma das características da alexitimia é a resposta fisiológica alterada aos estímulos olfativos.

Contrariamente ao que se poderia esperar, este estudo mostra que as reações fisiológicas dos indivíduos alextímicos às emoções induzidas pelos cheiros não são menores, bem pelo contrário, elas são mais intensas. A descoberta é uma observação científica contra-intuitiva e particularmente significativa, disseram os pesquisadores.

Além disso, os resultados do estudo também mostraram que os participantes com "alexitimia cognitiva", que compromete a capacidade de identificar, expressar e distinguir as emoções, reagiram de maneira diferente aos odores em comparação com aqueles com "alexitimia afetiva", que dificulta as sensações, imaginação e criatividade de uma pessoa .

Os autores concluíram que a alexitimia é caracterizada por reações fisiológicas alteradas aos estímulos olfativos. De igual forma, os autores enfatizam a importância de avaliar os diferentes componentes da alexitimia, uma vez que afetam o processamento de estímulos emocionais de diferentes maneiras. O estudo foi publicado em 26 de outubro na revista Scientific Reports.

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